What Are Equity Shares? – Meaning, Types, Features And Advantages

A firm might consider two primary sources of capital while raising funds. It can either be through debt, by borrowing money from lenders via a range of loan instruments, including debentures or through equity, i.e., by issuing shares.

And when it comes to equity, it is one of the most popular ways for consumers to participate in the stock market. Equity shares are popular among investors who want to profit from the historically strong returns that equities have provided. 

“Equity share” is a prominent term in the world of finance and investment planning. These shares grant a portion of the company’s ownership; thus, equity stockholders are regarded as a part of the company.

Let us look in depth at what is equity share?

What are equity shares?

When we look at equity shares meaning, they are considered long-term financing solutions for businesses trying to raise funds. Each equity share represents a unit of partial ownership in the firm. The public is provided with equity shares, also known as common stock or common shares, as an investment option.

Equity Shares – Meaning, Features, Advantages

An entity issues equity shares among the general public through an IPO. IPO stands for initial public offering. By enrolling in the IPO, you can purchase shares. Following their allocation and listing on the stock exchange, stocks can be easily traded. In India, two well-known stock markets are the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

There are different types of equity shares which we will discuss further. 

Types of equity shares

Now that you know what equity share is, let us glimpse its various types. These shares rely on several factors. The many types of equity shares include the following:

  • Authorized Share Capital

It represents the maximum equity that a company may offer. The corporations may occasionally increase it. We must follow specific procedures and provide the appropriate authorities with some money.

  • Issued Share Capital

The company provides investors access to it as a component of the authorized capital.

  • Subscribed Share Capital

It is known as the percentage of the issued capital that an investor acknowledges and consents to.

Investors pay this amount as a percentage of the subscribed capital. The subscribed, issued, and paid capital are equal if all enterprises accept full payment in advance. In a conceptual sense, paid-up capital refers to the amount of money a corporation invests in the business. It is also known as contributed capital.

  • Ordinary Shares

The shares the firm issues with obtaining money to cover long-term expenditures are known as ordinary shares. Investors receive a portion of the company. The amount refers to the proportion of shares held at that time. Voting privileges will be available to ordinary shareholders.

  • Preference Shares

Preference equity shares guarantee that investors will receive cumulative dividends before ordinary stockholders. But, preference shareholders don’t have the same membership and voting privileges as ordinary shareholders.

  • Rights Shares

Not everyone is a good fit for rights shares. The corporation exclusively issues these shares to confident high-end investors, and the equity stake of these holders consequently rises. The rights issue is completed at a reduced cost. The goal is to raise funds to satisfy the funding needs.

  • Bonus Stock

A sort of equity share issued by a company from its retained profits is called a bonus share. In certain other words, a corporation issues bonus shares as a way to disperse its earnings. However, unlike other stock shares, this does not raise the company’s market capitalization.

  • Sweat Equity Shares

Shares of a company’s sweat equity are given to the directors and staff. They receive discounted shares for their exceptional job in supplying the firm with intellectual property rights and additional values.

Features of Equity Shares

Compared to saving, investing has a more significant risk but offers better returns and, when done correctly, accelerates the achievement of financial objectives.

We know equity shares meaning, types and that equity shares are seen as a long-term funding alternative for businesses wanting to finance their operations. Now let’s look at the key characteristics/features of equity shares which are as follows:

  • Voting Rights

The majority of equity owners are entitled to vote. This enables them to decide who will run the company. Selecting capable managers helps the business increase its yearly turnover. Investors may thus see an increase in their average dividend income.

  • Permanent Shares

Equity shares are not refundable, meaning that investors will not receive their investment money back throughout the company’s existence. Equity shareholders can either sell their equity shares to redeem them or get the money when the company shuts down, depending on the worth of their equity shares.

  • Liquidity

Equity shares have a high liquidity level as investments. The stock exchanges are where shares are traded. The share is, therefore, available for purchase and sale during trading hours. Consequently, one should not be concerned about selling their stock.

  • Massive Profits

Shares of equity can provide considerable profits to owners. However, they are dangerous investing opportunities. In other words, equity shares are highly volatile. Price fluctuations may be dramatic and are influenced by various internal and external variables. As a result, only individuals with adequate risk tolerance levels should consider investing in them.

  • Dividends

A company’s profits are shared among equity stockholders. Put another way, a firm may pay dividends to its stockholders from its yearly earnings. The distribution of dividends is not required of a firm, though. A corporation might decide not to pay dividends to its stockholders if it doesn’t generate enough cash flow or earn substantial profits.

  • Limited Liability

The ordinary stockholders are unaffected by a company’s losses which indicates the company’s debt obligations are not the shareholders’ responsibility. The price of stock dropping is the only result that will impact a shareholder’s return on investment.

Advantages of Equity Shares:

Possibility of generating a huge Profit

When you invest in equity shares, your earning potential is doubled:

a> Capital growth is a result of rising stock prices.

b> Consistent revenue if the business declares dividends.

Prevention of Inflation

The possibility for profits that exceed inflation exists with equity shares. This is significant because you risk losing buying power if your returns are below inflation.

Profit from Dividends

The revenue that a company delivers to its shareholders from its profits is known as a dividend. The company’s stockholders receive their revenue via dividends.

Exercise control

Voting rights are granted to you when you purchase a company’s shares. Therefore, you may exert control over and acquire ownership of a corporation by buying its shares. You can attend shareholder meetings and other significant company gatherings.

Right Over profits and assets

You get a portion of the firm’s ownership when you buy shares of a company. As a result, you become the owner of the company’s assets. 

Diversion of the Portfolio

Equity markets offer investors the chance to diversify their portfolios. It aids in risk management and shields you from erratic stock price swings. The fact that shortfall in one area may be offset by performance in another is what makes diversity advantageous to the investor.


Equity market investment requires a lot of effort and time. Always remember, do not make an investment choice based on a lack of information about the firm.

Considering the nature and features of equity shares, they should be seen as a form of an asset rather than an investing instrument by investors.

Make sure you comprehend the fundamentals of how the stock market works. Investing in the stock market may help you amass a sizable corpus when you have appropriate information and expertise.

Never forget that managing risk, rather than ignoring it, is the key to successful investment.

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