Futures and Options (F&O) – Meaning, Types and Difference

In the stock market, derivative trading comprises futures and options (F&O). They provide the chance to make enormous profits since they are financial agreements between the seller and the buyer of an asset. Two of the parties involved signed these contracts to trade an item at a fixed price at a later time.

You must be wondering what are futures and options. These twin derivatives protect the investor against upcoming stock market swings by defining the price of the trade. However, the real futures and options trade is frequently far more intricate and dynamic.

What are futures and options

To deal in India’s financial markets, you must have an online trading account, but for F&O trading, you need a brokerage account so an online Demat account isn’t necessary. The best course of action is to set up an account via a broker who will carry out trades on your behalf.

It is generally recommended to comprehend how they work in such situations before investing. A piece of detailed information on what are futures and options is provided below.

What are Futures and Options?

While an option buyer has the right (but not the responsibility) to purchase or sell shares at a particular price on the set date termed as the expiry Date, a futures contract holder is required to buy or sell shares on a specific future date.

Futures and options on the stock market continue to be new to many individuals. However, they have become more common in recent times. Therefore it may be in your best interest to understand more about it. Futures and options have the benefit of being freely tradable on a variety of markets.

Types of Futures and Options

With the same guidelines for buyers and sellers, futures are fundamentally consistent. Both the financial and commodities markets provide a wide variety of futures. Agricultural goods, gold, oil, cotton, oilseeds, and other commodities are all covered by futures contracts. 

There are several types of futures:

  • Stock Futures
  • Index Futures
  • Currency Futures
  • Commodity Futures
  • Interest rate futures

Options fall within two categories:

  • Call Options

It allows you to purchase the underlying stock at a predetermined value and date.

  • Put Options

It allows you to sell assets at a defined price on a specific date. Trade is always an option in both situations. If the pricing doesn’t work for you, you might decide not to use the call or put option.

Difference between Futures and Options

While they are considered derivatives, there are a few difference between futures and options. Investors frequently engage in futures contracts to protect themselves against fluctuations in asset prices. Futures contracts compel investors to purchase or sell assets at a fixed price on a future date.

On the other hand, options contracts are also financial contracts but are not legally binding. They are flexible and are used to create different trading strategies. It provides a range of pricing that can be set as a lock for future transactions.

You will be able to utilize these trading tools as effectively as possible if you grasp the difference between futures and options.




Obligation In this case, the purchaser is obliged to buy the item on the designated future date.  There is no commitment on the purchaser’s side to complete the transaction.
Risk Endless potential for profit or loss. Unlimited profit with lower possibility of loss.
Preference Preferred by speculators and arbitrageurs Preferred by hedger
Margin Requires higher margin payment than Options Requires lower margin payment than Futures

Who should Invest in Futures and Options?

Trading futures and options involve a dedication to market monitoring as well as knowledge of the subtleties of the stock market. There is a significant amount of supposition as well. Therefore, hedgers or speculators tend to employ it most frequently.

  • Hedgers

The term “hedging” refers to the act of lowering risk. Hence an investor who is eager to do this is referred to as a hedger. The commodities market, where prices may change rapidly, is where you can find the majority of hedgers. In such circumstances, F&O trading frequently offers much-needed price stability.

  • Speculators

Speculators are those who invest in assets solely to profit from price changes. To generate profit, speculators predict market fluctuations and take bets appropriately. They will research the market and news stories that might influence trade before estimating the price. Typically, a speculator will attempt to buy at a discount while projecting larger gains in the long run.

  • Arbitrageurs

They are significant players and people who attempt to benefit from the price differential between an asset resulting from market circumstances. Arbitrageurs aim to take advantage of the dynamic environment where judgments are made instantly. They are crucial in boosting market liquidity as well.


Futures and Options are sometimes viewed as the more enigmatic relatives of equities trading. You will undoubtedly use these cutting-edge financial tools more effectively if you have a solid grasp of F&O trading.

It may be an excellent risk management tool and protect you from market instability. Alternatively, as a speculator, it may be a tool to leverage the instability to generate astronomical gains, although that strategy has significant dangers of its own.

Trade wisely!

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